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SELECTED READINGS

Music Perception (general)           Pitch          Harmony          Melody          Rhythm          Timbre      

         Tempo, Duration, & Structure          Music & Language           Emotion & Meaning                

Evolution & Development        Amusia & Other Deficits           Plasticity          Musicians' Brains

 

Music Perception (general)

Andrade PE & Bhattacharya J. Brain tuned to music. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2003, 96: 284-287. PDF

Arikan MK, et al. Music effects on event-related potentials of humans on the basis of cultural environment. Neuroscience Letters 1999, 268: 21-24. PDF

Bhattacharya J & Petsche H. Universality in the brain while listening to music. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 2001, 268: 2423-2433. PDF

Bhattacharya J, Petsche H & Pereda E. Long-range synchrony in the gamma band: Role in music perception. The Journal of Neuroscience 2001, 21(16): 6329-6337. PDF

Deutsch D. Music perception. Frontiers in Bioscience 2007, 12: 4473-4482. PDF

Eisencraft T, de Miranda MF & Schochat E. Comparing middle latency response with and without music. Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia 2006, 72(4): 465-9. PDF

Evers S, et al. The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception: A transcranial Doppler sonography study. Brain 1999, 122: 75-85. PDF

Formisano E, et al. Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex. Neuron 2003, 40: 859-869. PDF

Griffiths TD. Human complex sound analysis. Clinical Science 1999, 96: 231-234. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. Frontal processing and auditory perception. NeuroReport 2000, 11(5): 919-922. PDF

Griffiths TD & Warren JD. The planum temporale as a computational hub.Trends in Neuroscience 2002, 25(7): 348-353. PDF

Gunji A, et al. Magnetoencephalographic study of the cortical activity elicited by human voice. Neuroscience Letters 2003, 348: 13-16. PDF

Guttman SE, Gilroy LA & Blake R. Hearing what the eyes see: Auditory encoding of visual temporal sequences. Psychological Science 2005, 16(3): 228-235. PDF

Hooper SL, Buchman E & Hobbs KH. A computational role for slow conductances: Single-neuron models that measure duration. Nature Neuroscience 2002, 5(6): 552-556. PDF

Hugdahl K, et al. Brain activation during dichotic presentation of consonant-vowel and musical instrument stimuli: A 15O PET study. Neuropsychologia 1999, 37: 431-440. PDF

Iakovides SA, et al. Psychophysiology and psychoacoustics of music: Perception of complex sound in normal subjects and psychiatric patients. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry 2004, 3:6. PDF

Jackendoff R & Lerdahl F. The capacity for music: What is it, and what's special about it? Cognition 2006, 100: 33-72. PDF

Janata P & Grafton ST. Swinging in the brain: Shared neural substrates for behaviors related to sequencing and music. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(7): 682-687. PDF

Julicher F, Andor D & Duke T. Physical basis of two-tone interference in hearing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001, 98(16): 9080-9085. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Electric brain responses reveal gender differences in music processing. NeuroReport 2003, 14(5): 709-713. PDF

Kraemer DJM, et al. Sound of silence activates auditory cortex. Nature 2005, 434: 158. PDF

Langers DRM, Backes WH & van Dijk P. Representation of lateralization and tonotopy in primary versus secondary human auditory cortex. NeuroImage 2007, 34: 264-273. PDF

Limb CJ. Structural and functional neural correlates of music perception. The Anatomical Record Part A 2006, 288A: 435-446. PDF

Nakamura S, et al. Analysis of music-brain interaction with simultaneous measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and electroencephalogram beta rhythm in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters 1999, 275: 222-226. PDF

Oohashi T, et al. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: Hypersonic effect. Journal of Neurophysiology 2000, 83: 3548-3558. PDF

Paavilainen P, et al. Neuronal populations in the human brain extracting invariant relationships from acoustic variance. Neuroscience Letters 1999, 265: 179-182. PDF

Patel AD & Balaban E. Human auditory cortical dynamics during perception of long acoustic sequences: Phase tracking of carrier frequency by the auditory steady-state response. Cerebral Cortex 2004, 14: 35-46. PDF

Peretz I & Coltheart M. Modularity of music processing. Nature Neuroscience 6(7): 688-691. PDF

Peretz I & Zatorre RJ. Brain organization for music processing. Annual Review of Psychology 2005, 56: 89-114. PDF

Rauschecker JP. Cortical processing of complex sounds. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 1998, 8: 516-521. PDF

Sacks O. The power of music. Brain 2006, 129: 2528-2532. PDF

Schmuckler MA & Gilden DL. Auditory perception of fractal contours. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1993, 19(3): 641-660. PDF

Schön D & Besson M. Visually induced auditory expectancy in music reading: A behavioral and electrophysiology study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2005, 17(4): 694-705. PDF

Shera CA, Guinan JJ Jr. & Oxenham AJ. Revised estimates of human cochlear tuning from otoacoustic and behavioral measurements. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2002, 99(5): 3318-3323. PDF

Sridharan D, et al. Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: Converging evidence for dissociable vental and dorsal networks. Neuron 2007, 55: 521-532. PDF

Szpunar KK, Schellenberg EG & Pliner P. Liking and memory for musical stimuli as a function of exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 2004, 30(2): 370-381. PDF

Talavage TM, et al. Tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex revealed by progressions of frequency sensitivity. Journal of Neurophysiology 2004, 91: 1282-1296. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. The musical brain: Brain waves reveal the neurophysiological basis of musicality in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters 1997, 226: 1-4. PDF

Tervaniemi M & Hughdahl K. Lateralization of auditory-cortex funtions. Brain Research Reviews 2003, 43: 231-246. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. Sound processing in amateur musicians and nonmusicians: Event-related potential and behavioral indices. NeuroReport 2006, 17(11): 1225-1228. PDF

Ulanovsky N, et al. Multiple time scales of adaptation in auditory cortex neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience 2004, 24(46): 10440-10453. PDF

Warren JD. Variations on the musical brain. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1999, 92: 571-575. PDF

Warren JD & Griffiths TD. Distinct mechanisms for processing spatial sequences and pitch sequences in the human auditory brain. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(13): 5799-5804. PDF

Yabe H, et al. Sound perception affected by nonlinear variation of accuracy in memory trace. NeuroReport 2004, 15(18): 2813-2817. PDF

Zatorre RJ & Belin P. Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 2001, 11: 946-953. PDF

Zatorre RJ & Krumhansl CL. Mental models and musical minds. Science 2002, 298: 2138-2139. PDF

Zatorre RJ. Music, the food of neuroscience? Nature 2005, 434: 312-315. PDF

Zatorre RJ & Halpern AR. Mental concerts: Musical imagery and auditory cortex. Neuron 2005, 47: 9-12. PDF

Zatorre RJ, Chen JL & Penhune VB. When the brain plays music: Auditory-motor interactions in music perception and production. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2007, 8: 547-558. PDF

van Zuijen TL, et al. Auditory organization of sound sequences by a temporal or numerical regularity: A mismatch negativity study comparing musicians and non-musicians. Cognitive Brain Research 2005, 23: 270-276. PDF

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Pitch

Alcock KJ, et al. Pitch and timing abilities in inherited speech and language impairment. Brain and Language 2000, 75: 34-46. PDF

Alcock KJ, et al. Pitch and timing abilities in adult left-hemisphere-dysphasic and right-hemisphere-damaged subjects. Brain and Language 2000, 75: 47-65. PDF

Baharloo S, et al. Absolute pitch: An approach for identification of genetic and nongenetic components. American Journal of Human Genetics 1998, 62: 224-231. PDF

Baharloo S, et al. Familial aggregation of absolute pitch. American Journal of Human Genetics 2000, 67: 755-758. PDF

Bangert M, et al. Classical conditioned responses to absent tones. BMC Neuroscience 2006, 7:60. PDF

Bendor D & Wang X. The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. Nature 2005, 436(7054): 1161-1165. PDF

Bendor D & Wang X. Cortical representation of pitch in monkeys and humans. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2006, 16(39): 391-399. PDF

Bermudez P & Zatorre RJ. Conditional associative memory for musical stimuli in nonmusicians: Implications for absolute pitch. The Journal of Neuroscience 2005, 25(34): 7718-7723. PDF

Berti S, et al. Different interference effects in musicians and a control group. Experimental Psychology 2006, 53(2): 111-116. PDF

Boltz MG. The processing of temporal and nontemporal information in the remembering of event durations and musical structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1998, 24(4): 1087-1104. PDF

Bonnel A, et al. Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: A signal detection analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003, 15(2): 226-235. PDF

Brancucci A & San Martini P. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perception of rapid (timbral) and slow (nontimbral) amplitude fluctuations of complex tones. Neuropsychology 2003, 17(3): 451-457. PDF

Brattico E, et al. Simultaneous storage of two complex temporal sound patterns in auditory sensory memory. NeuroReport 2002, 13(14): 1747-1751. PDF

Brattico E, Tervaniemi M & Picton TW. Effects of brief discrimination-training on the auditory N1 wave. NeuroReport 2003, 14(18): 2489-2492. PDF

Brattico E, et al. Musical scale properties are automatically processed in the human auditory cortex. Brain Research 2006, 1117: 162-174. PDF

Cariani PA & Delgutte B. Neural correlates of the pitch of complex tones. I. Pitch and pitch salience. Journal of Neurophysiology 1996, 76: 1698-1716. PDF

Cariani PA & Delgutte B. Neural correlates of the pitch of complex tones. II. Pitch shift, pitch ambiguity, phase invariance, pitch circularity, rate pitch, and the dominance region for pitch. Journal of Neurophysiololgy 1996, 76(3): 1717-1734. PDF

Crawley EJ, et al. Change detection in multi-voice music: The role of musical structure, musical training, and task demands. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2002, 28(2): 367-378. PDF

Deutsch D. Tones and numbers: Specificity of interference in immediate memory. Science 1970, 168: 1604-1605. PDF

Deutsch D. Effect of repetition of standard and comparison tones on recognition memory for pitch. Journal of Experimental Psychology 1972, 93(1): 156-162. PDF

Deutsch D. Mapping of interactions in the pitch memory store. Science 1972, 175: 1020-1022. PDF

Deutsch D. Interference in memory between tones adjacent in the musical scale. Journal of Experimental Psychology 1973, 100(2): 228-231. PDF

Deutsch D. Error patterns in delayed pitch comparison as a function of relational context. Journal of Experimental Psychology 1974, 103(5): 1027-1034. PDF

Deutsch D & Roll PL. Separate "what" and "where" decision mechanisms in processing a dichotic tonal sequence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1976, 2(1): 23-29. PDF

Deutsch D. Pitch memory: An advantage for the left-handed. Science 1978, 199: 559-560. PDF

Deutsch D. Paradoxes of musical pitch. Scientific American 1992, 88-95. PDF

Deutsch D. The octave illusion revisited again. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2004, 30(2): 355-364. PDF

Deutsch D. Music perception. Frontiers in Bioscience 2007, 12: 4473-4482. PDF

Deutsch D, Hamaoui K & Henthorn T. The glissando illusion and handedness. Neuropsychologia 2007, article in press. PDF

Evarts EV. Effect of auditory cortex ablation in frequency discrimination in monkey. 1951, 443-448. PDF

Formisano E, et al. Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex. Neuron 2003, 40: 859-869. PDF

Foxton JM, et al. Training improves acoustic pattern perception. Current Biology 2004, 14: 322-325. PDF

Gaab N, Keenan JP & Schlaug G. The effects of gender on the neural substrates of pitch memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003, 15(6): 810-820. PDF

Gaab N & Schlaug G. The effect of musicianship on pitch memory in performance matched groups. NeuroReport 2003, 14(18): 2291-2295. PDF

Gaab N, et al. The influence of sleep on auditory learning: A behavioral study. NeuroReport 2004, 15(4): 731-734. PDF

Gaab N, et al. Neural correlates of absolute pitch differ between blind and sighted musicians. NeuroReport 2006, 17(18): 1853-1857. PDF

Gougoux F, et al. Pitch discrimination in the early blind. Nature 2004, 430: 309. PDF

Gregersen PK. Instant recognition: The genetics of pitch perception. American Journal of Human Genetics 1998, 62: 221-223. PDF

Gregersen PK, et al. Early childhood music education and predisposition to absolute pitch: Teasing apart genes and environment. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2000, 98: 280-282. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. A common neural substrate for the analysis of pitch and duration pattern in segmented sound? NeuroReport 1999, 10: 3825-3830. PDF

Hamilton RH, Pascual-Leone A & Schlaug G. Absolute pitch in blind musicians. NeuroReport 2004, 15(9): 803-806. PDF

He C, Hotson L & Trainor LJ. Mismatch responses to pitch changes in early infancy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2007, 19(5): 878-892. PDF

Henthorn T & Deutsch D. Ethnicity versus early environment: Comment on "Early childhood music education and predisposition to absolute pitch: Teasing apart genes and environment" by Peter K. Gregersen, Elena Kowalsky, Nina Kohn, and Elizabeth West Marvin [2000]. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 2007, 143A: 102-103. PDF

Hirata Y, Kuriki S & Pantev C. Musicians with absolute pitch show distinct neural activities in the auditory cortex. NeuroReport 1999, 10: 999-1002. PDF

Hirose H, et al. N100m in children possessing absolute pitch. NeuroReport 2003, 14(6): 899-903. PDF

Hirose H, et al. N100m in adults possessing absolute pitch. NeuroReport 2004, 15(9): 1383-1386. PDF

Jaramillo M, et al. Are different kinds of acoustic features processed differently for speech and non-speech sounds? Cognitive Brain Research 2001, 12: 459-466. PDF

Jusczyk PW & Krumhansl CL. Pitch and rhythmic patterns affecting infants' sensitivity to musical phrase structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance1993, 19(3): 627-640. PDF

Houtsma AJM & Goldstein JL. The central origin of the pitch of complex tones: Evidence from musical interval recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1971, 51: 520-528. PDF

Johnsrude IS, Penhune VB & Zatorre RJ. Functional specificity in the right human auditory cortex for perceiving pitch direction. Brain 2000, 123: 155-163. PDF

Jones SJ, Pato MV & Sprague L. Spectro-temporal analysis of complex tones: Two cortical processes dependent on retention of sounds in the long auditory store. Clinical Neurophysiology 2000, 111: 1569-1576. PDF

Jones SJ, et al. Auditory evoked potentials to spectro-temporal modulation of complex tones in normal subjects and patients with severe brain injury. Brain 2000, 123: 1007-1016. PDF

Kaas JH, Hackett TA, & Tramo MJ. Auditory processing in primate cerebral cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 1999, 9: 164-170. PDF

Krishnan, et al. Encoding of pitch in the human brainstem is sensitive to language experience. Cognitive Brain Research 2005, 25: 161-168. PDF

Krumhansl CL & Shepard RN. Quantification of the hierarchy of tonal functions within a diatonic context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1979, 5(4): 579-594. PDF

Krumhansl CL & Iverson P. Perceptual interactions between musical pitch and timbre. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1992, 18(3): 739-751. PDF

Krumhansl CL. Rhythm and pitch in music cognition. Psychological Bulletin 2000, 126: 159-179. PDF

Itoh K, et al. Electrophysiological correlates of absolute pitch and relative pitch. Cerebral Cortex 2005, 15: 760-769. PDF

Magne C, Schön D & Besson M. Musician children detect pitch violations in both music and language better than nonmusician children: Behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(2): 199-211. PDF

Micheyl C, et al. Perceptual organization of tone sequences in the auditory cortex of awake macaques. Neuron 2005, 48: 139-148. PDF

Morel A, Garraghty PE, & Kaas JH. Tonotopic organization, architectonic fields, and connections of auditory cortex in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 1993, 335: 437-459. PDF

Novitski N, et al. Frequency discrimination at different frequency levels as indexed by electrophysiological and behavioral measures. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 20: 26-36. PDF

Ohgushi K & Ano Y. The relationship between musical pitch and temporal responses of auditory nerve fibers. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science 2005, 24: 99-101. PDF

Paavilainen P, et al. Neuronal populations in the human brain extracting invariant relationships from acoustic variance. Neuroscience Letters 1999, 265: 179-182. PDF

Pantev C, Hoke M, Lutkenhoner B, & Lehnertz K. Tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex: Pitch versus frequency representation. Science 1989, 246: 486-488. PDF

Paquette C, Bourassa M & Peretz I. Left ear advantage in pitch perception of complex tones without energy at the fundamental frequency. Neuropsychologia 1996, 34(2): 153-157. PDF

Patel AD & Balaban E. Temporal patterns of human cortical activity reflect tone sequence structure. Nature 2000, 404: 80-84. PDF

Patel AD & Balaban E. Human pitch perception is reflected in the timing of stimulus-related cortical activity. Nature Neuroscience 2001, 4(8): 839-844. PDF

Pato MV & Jones SJ. Cortical processing of complex tone stimuli: Mismatch negativity at the end of a period of rapid pitch modulation. Cognitive Brain Research 1999, 7: 295-306. PDF

Pato MV, et al. Mismatch negativity to single and multiple pitch-deviant tones in regular and pseudo-random complex tone sequences. Clinical Neurophysiology 2002, 113: 519-527. PDF

Patterson RD, et al. The processing of temporal pitch and melody information in auditory cortex. Neuron 2002, 36: 767-776. PDF

Peretz I, Brattico E & Tervaniemi M. Abnormal electrical brain responses to pitch in congenital amusia. Annals of Neurology 2005, 58: 478-482. PDF

Perry DW, et al. Localization of cerebral activity during simple singing. NeuroReport 1999, 10: 3979-3984. PDF

Phillips DP, et al . Level-dependent representation of stimulus frequency in cat primary auditory cortex. Experimental Brain Research 1994, 102: 210-226. PDF

Poulin-Charronnat B, Bigand E & Koelsch S. Processing of musical syntax tonic versus subdominant: An event related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(9): 1545-1554. PDF

Ross DA, Olson IR & Gore JC. Cortical plasticity in an early blind musician: An fMRI study. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2003, 21: 821-828. PDF

Ross D, Choi J & Purves D. Musical intervals in speech. Proccedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2007, 104(23): 9852-9857. PDF

Ross J, Tervaniemi M & Näätänen R. Neural mechanisms of the octave illusion: Electrophysiological evidence for central origin. NeuroReport 1996, 8: 303-306. PDF

Saarinen J, et al. Representation of abstract attributes of auditory stimuli in the human brain. NeuroReport 1992, 3: 1149-1151. PDF

Saffran JR & Griepentrog GJ. Absolute pitch in infant auditory learning: Evidence for developmental reorganization. Developmental Psychology 2001, 37(1): 74-85. PDF

Sanders LD & Poeppel D. Local and global auditory processing: Behavioral and ERP evidence. Neuropsychologia 2007, 45: 1172-1186. PDF

Schneider B, Trehub SE & Bull D. High-frequency sensitivity in infants. Science 1980, 207: 1003-1004. PDF

Schneider P, et al. Structural and functional asymmetry of lateral Heschl's gyrus reflects pitch perception preference. Nature Neuroscience 2005, 8(9): 1241-1247. PDF

Schön D & Besson M. Processing pitch and duration in music reading: A RT-ERP study. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 868-878. PDF

Schwartz DA, Howe CQ & Purves D. The statistical structure of human speech sounds predicts musical universals. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(18): 7160-7168. PDF

Schwarz DWF & Tomlinson RWW. Spectral response patterns of auditory cortex neurons to harmonic complex tones in alert monkey (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Neurophysiology 1990, 64: 282-298. PDF

Shahin A, et al. Enhancement of neuroplastic P2 and N1c auditory evoked potentials in musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(12): 5545-5552. PDF

Shahin A, et al. Moldulation of P2 auditory-evoked responses by the spectral complexity of musical sounds. NeuroReport 2005, 16(16): 1781-1785. PDF

Shepard RN. Circularity in judgments of relative pitch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1964, 36: 2346-2353. PDF

Smith NA & Schmuckler MA. The perception of tonal structure through the differentiation and organization of pitches. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2004, 30(2): 268-286. PDF

Snyder JS & Large EW. Tempo dependence of middle- and long-latency auditory responses: Power and phase modulation of the EEG at multiple time-scales. Clinical Neurophysiology 2004, 115: 1885-1895. PDF

Steinke WR, Cuddy LL & Holden RR. Dissociation of musical tonality and pitch memory from nonmusical cognitive abilities. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1997, 51(4): 316-334. PDF

Tervaniemi M, Maury S & Näätänen R. Neural representations of abstract stimulus features in the human brain as reflected by the mismatch negativity. NeuroReport 1994, 5: 844-846. PDF

Tervaniemi M, Schröger E & Näätänen R. Pre-attentive processing of spectrally complex sounds with asynchronous onsets: An event-related potential study with human subjects. Neuroscience Letters 1997, 227: 197-200. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. Harmonic partials facilitate pitch discrimination in humans: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. Neuroscience Letters 2000, 279: 29-32. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. Effects of spectral complexity and sound duration on automatic complex-sound pitch processing in humans: A mismatch negativity study. Neuroscience Letters 2000, 290: 66-70. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. From air oscillations to music and speech: Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for fine-tuned neural networks in audition. The Journal of Neuroscience 2006, 26(34): 8647-8652. PDF

Thompson WF, Hall MD & Pressing J. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2001, 27(1): 128-140. PDF

Tramo MJ, Shah GD, & Braida LD. Functional role of auditory cortex in frequency processing and pitch perception. Journal of Neurophysiology 2002, 87: 122-139. PDF

Tramo MJ, et al. Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of pitch perception: Auditory cortex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2005, 1060: 148-174. PDF

Vines BW, Schnider NM & Schlaug G. Testing for causality with transcranial direct current stimulation: Pitch memory and the left supramarginal gyrus. NeuroReport2006, 17(10): 1047-1050. PDF

Warren JD & Griffiths TD. Distinct mechanisms for processing spatial sequences and pitch sequences in the human auditory brain. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(13): 5799-5804. PDF

Warren JD, et al. Separating pitch chroma and pitch height in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2003, 100(17): 10038-10042. PDF

Warrier CM & Zatorre RJ. Right temporal cortex is critical for utilization of melodic contextual cues in a pitch constancy task. Brain 2004, 127: 1616-1625. PDF

Wightman FL & Green DM. The perception of pitch. American Scientist 1974, 62: 208-215. PDF

Zatorre RJ. Category-boundary effects and speeded sorting with a harmonic musical-interval continuum: Evidence for dual processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1983, 9(5): 739-752. PDF

Zatorre RJ. Pitch perception of complex tones and human temporal-lobe function. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1988, 84: 566-572. PDF

Zatorre RJ, et al. Lateralization of phonetic and pitch discrimination in speech processing. Science 1992, 256: 846-849. PDF

Zatorre RJ, Evans AC & Meyer E. Neural mechanisms underlying melodic perception and memory for pitch. The Journal of Neuroscience1994, 14(4): 1908-1919. PDF

Zatorre R. How do our brains analyze temporal structure in sound? Nature Neuroscience 1998, 1(5): 343-345. PDF

Zatorre RJ, et al. Functional anatomy of musical processing in listeners with absolute pitch and relative pitch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1998, 95: 3172-3177. PDF

Zatorre RJ. Absolute pitch: A model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(7): 692-695. PDF

van Zuijen TL, et al. Grouping of sequential sounds: An event-related potential study comparing musicians and nonmusicians. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2004, 16(2): 331-338. PDF

van Zuijen TL, et al. Implicit, intuitive, and explicit knowledge of abstract regularities in a sound sequence: An event-related brain potenial study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(8): 1292-1303. PDF

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Harmony

Beisteiner R, et al. A marker for differentiation of capabilities for processing of musical harmonies as detected by magnetoencephalography in musicians. Neuroscience Letters 1999, 277: 37-40. PDF

Bharucha JJ & Stoeckig K. Reaction time and musical expectancy: Priming of chords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1986, 12(4): 403-410. PDF

Bigand E, et al. Sensory versus cognitive components in harmonic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2003, 29(1): 159-171. PDF

Blood AJ, et al. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions. Nature Neuroscience 1999, 2: 382-387. PDF

Brown S, et al. The song system of the human brain. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 20: 363-375. PDF

Castellano MA, Bharucha JJ & Krumhansl CL. Tonal hierarchies in the music of North India. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1984, 13(3): 394-412. PDF

Deutsch D. Two issues concerning tonal hierarchies: Comment on Castellano, Bharucha, and Krumhansl. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1984, 113(3): 413-416. PDF

Deutsch D. Music perception. Frontiers in Bioscience 2007, 12: 4473-4482. PDF

Fishman, et al. Consonance and dissonance of musical chords: Neural correlates in auditory cortex of monkeys and humans. Journal of Neurophysiology 2001, 86: 2761-2788. PDF

Hall MD & Pastore RE. Musical duplex perception: Perception of figurally good chords with subliminal distinguishing tones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1992, 18(3): 752-762. PDF

Hébert S, Peretz I & Gagnon L. Perceiving the tonal ending of tune excerpts: The role of pre-existing representation and musical expertise. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1995, 49(2): 193-209. PDF

Itoh K, Suwazono S & Nakada T. Cortical processing of musical consonance: An evoked potential study. NeuroReport 2003, 14(18): 2303-2306. PDF

Janata P, et al. The cortical topography of tonal structures underlying Western music. Science 2002, 298: 2167-2170. PDF

Justus TC & Bharucha JJ. Modularity in musical processing: The automaticity of harmonic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2001, 27: 1000-1011. PDF

Koelsch S, Schröger E & Tervaniemi M. Superior pre-attentive auditory processing in musicians. NeuroReport 1999, 10: 1309-1313. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Brain indices of music processing: "Nonmusicians" are musical. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2000, 12(3): 520-541. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Differentiating ERAN and MMN: An ERP study. NeuroReport 2001, 12(7): 1385-1389. PDF

Koelsch S & Mulder J. Electric brain responses to inappropriate harmonies during listening to expressive music. Clinical Neurophysiology 2002, 113: 862-869. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Processing tonal modulations: An ERP study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003, 15(8): 1149-1159. PDF

Koelsch, S. Neural substrates of processing syntax and semantics in music. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2005, 15: 207-212. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Interaction between syntax processing in language and in music: An ERP study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2005, 17(10): 1565-1577. PDF

Krumhansl CL & Shepard RN. Quantification of the hierarchy of tonal functions within a diatonic context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1979, 5(4): 579-594. PDF

Krumhansl CL, Bharucha JJ & Kessler EJ. Perceived harmonic structure of chords in three related musical keys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1982, 8(1): 24-36. PDF

Leino S, et al. Representation of harmony rules in the human brain: Further evidence from event-related potentials. Brain Research 2007, 1142: 169-177. PDF

Loui P, et al. Effects of attention on the neural processing of harmonic syntax in Western music. Cognitive Brain Research 2005, 25: 678-687. PDF

Maess B, et al. Musical syntax is processed in Broca's area: An MEG study. Nature Neuroscience 2001, 4: 540-545. PDF

Moore BCJ, Peters RW & Glasberg BR. Thresholds for the detection of inharmonicity in complex tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1985, 77: 1861-1867. PDF

Neuloh G & Curio G. Does familiarity facilitate the cortical processing of music sounds? NeuroReport 2004, 15(16): 2471-2475. PDF

Patel AD, et al. Processing syntactic relations in language and music: An event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1998, 10: 717-733. PDF

Pato MV & Jones SJ. Cortical processing of complex tone stimuli: Mismatch negativity at the end of a period of rapid pitch modulation. Cognitive Brain Research 1999, 7: 295-306. PDF

Regnault P, Bigand E & Besson M. Different brain mechanisms mediate sensitivity to sensory consonance and harmonic context: Evidence from auditory event-related brain potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2001, 13(2): 241-255. PDF

Satoh M, et al. The anterior portion of the bilateral temporal lobes participates in music perception: A positron emission tomography study. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2003, 24: 1843-1848. PDF

Schmithorst VJ & Holland SK. The effect of musical training on music processing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2003, 348: 65-68. PDF

Schwartz DA, Howe CQ & Purves D. The statistical structure of human speech sounds predicts musical universals. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(18): 7160-7168. PDF

Smith NA & Schmuckler MA. The perception of tonal structure through the differentiation and organization of pitches. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2004, 30(2): 268-286. PDF

Steinbeis N, Koelsch S & Sloboda JA. The role of harmonic expectancy violations in musical emotions: Evidence from subjective, physiological, and neural responses. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(8): 1380-1393. PDF

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Melody

Andrews MW, et al. Identification of speeded and slowed familiar melodies by younger, middle-aged, and older musicians and nonmusicians. Psychology and Aging 1998, 13(3): 462-471. PDF

Balaban MT, Anderson LM & Wisniewski AB. Lateral asymmetries in infant melody perception. Developmental Psychology 1998, 24(1): 39-48. PDF

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Brown S, et al. The song system of the human brain. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 20: 363-375. PDF

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Dowling WJ & Fujitani DS. Contour, interval, and pitch recognition in memory for melodies. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1971, 49: 524-531. PDF

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Fujioka T, et al. Automatic encoding of polyphonic melodies in musicians and nonmusicians. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2005, 17(10): 1578-1592. PDF

Halpern AR & Zatorre RJ. When that tune runs through your head: A PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies. Cerebral Cortex 1999, 9: 697-704. PDF

Hannon EE, et al. The role of melodic and temporal cues in perceiving musical meter. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2004, 30(5): 956-974. PDF

Hashimoto T, Hirata Y & Kuriki S. Auditory cortex responds in 100ms to incongruity in melody. NeuroReport 2000, 11(12): 2799-2801. PDF

Hébert S, Peretz I & Gagnon L. Perceiving the tonal ending of tune excerpts: The role of pre-existing representation and musical expertise. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1995, 49(2): 193-209. PDF

Jones MR & Pfordresher PQ. Tracking musical patterns using joint accent structure. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1997, 51(4): 271-290. PDF

Korenman LM & Peynircioglu ZF. The role of familiarity in episodic memory and metamemory for music. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 2004, 30(4): 917-922. PDF

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Neuhaus C, Knosche TR & Friederici AD. Effects of musical expertise and boundary markers on phrase perception in music. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(3): 472-493. PDF

Overy K, et al. Imaging melody and rhythm processing in young children. NeuroReport 2004, 15(11): 1723-1726. PDF

Palmer C & Krumhansl CL. Independent temporal and pitch structures in determination of musical phrases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1987, 13(1): 116-126. PDF

Patterson RD, et al. The processing of temporal pitch and melody information in auditory cortex. Neuron 2002, 36: 767-776. PDF

Peretz I & Coltheart M. Modularity of music processing. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(7): 688-691. PDF

Pfordresher PQ. Auditory feedback in music performance: The role of melodic structure and musical skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2005, 31(6): 1331-1345. PDF

Piccirilli M, Sciarma T & Luzzi S. Modularity of music: Evidence from a case of pure amusia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2000, 69: 541-545. PDF

Samson S & Zatorre RJ. Recognition memory for text and melody of songs after unilateral temporal lobe lesion: Evidence for dual encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1991, 17: 793-804. PDF

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Satoh M, et al. Positron-emission tomography of brain regions activated by recognition of familiar music. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2006 27: 1101-1106. PDF

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Schiavetto A, Cortese F & Alain C. Global and local processing of musical sequences: An event-related brain potential study. NeuroReport 1999, 10: 2467-2472. PDF

Schmithorst VJ & Holland SK. The effect of musical training on music processing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2003, 348: 65-68. PDF

Schmuckler MA. Expectancy effects in memory for melodies. Canadian Journal of Psychology 1997, 51(4): 292-305. PDF

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Trehub SE, Schellenberg EG & Kamenetsky SB. Infants' and adults' perception of scale structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1999, 25(4): 965-975. PDF

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Rhythm

Alcock KJ, et al. Pitch and timing abilities in inherited speech and language impairment. Brain and Language 2000, 75: 34-46. PDF

Alcock KJ, et al. Pitch and timing abilities in adult left-hemisphere-dysphasic and right-hemisphere-damaged subjects. Brain and Language 2000, 75: 47-65. PDF

Grahn JA & Brett M. Rhythm and beat perception in motor areas of the brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2007, 19(5): 893-906. PDF

Guttman SE, Gilroy LA & Blake R. Hearing what the eyes see: Auditory encoding of visual temporal sequences. Psychological Science 2005, 16(3): 228-235. PDF

Hannon EE, et al. The role of melodic and temporal cues in perceiving musical meter. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2004, 30(5): 956-974. PDF

Hannon EE & Trehub SE. Tuning in to musical rhythms: Infants learn more readily than adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2005, 102(35): 12630-12643. PDF

Jongsma MLA, Quiroga RQ & van Rijn CM. Rhythmic training decreases latency-jitter of omission evoked potentials (OEPs) in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2004, 355: 189-192. PDF

Jusczyk PW & Krumhansl CL. Pitch and rhythmic patterns affecting infants' sensitivity to musical phrase structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance1993, 19(3): 627-640. PDF

Krampe RT, et al. The fast and the slow of skilled bimanual rhythm production: Parallel versus integrated timing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2000, 26(1): 206-233. PDF

Krumhansl CL. Rhythm and pitch in music cognition. Psychological Bulletin 2000, 126: 159-179. PDF

Kurtz S & Lee TD. Part and whole perceptual-motor practice of a polyrhythm. Neuroscience Letters 2003, 338: 205-208. PDF

Limb CJ, et al. Left hemispheric lateralization of brain activity during passive rhythm perception in musicians. The Anatomical Record Part A 2006, 288A: 382-389. PDF

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Palmer C & Krumhansl CL. Mental representations for musical meter. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1990, 16(4): 728-741. PDF

Penhune VB, Zatorre RJ & Feindel WH. The role of auditory cortex in retention of rhythmic patterns as studied in patients with temporal lobe removals including Heschl's gyrus. Neuropsychologia 1999, 37: 315-331. PDF

Phillips-Silver J & Trainor LJ. Feeling the beat: Movement influences infant rhythm perception. Science 2005, 308: 1430. PDF

Piccirilli M, Sciarma T & Luzzi S. Modularity of music: evidence from a case of pure amusia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2000, 69: 541-545. PDF

Povel DJ. Internal Representation of Simple Temporal Patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1981, 7: 3-18. PDF

Sakai K, et al. Neural representations of a rhythm depends on its interval ratio. The Journal of Neuroscience 1999, 19: 10074-10081. PDF

Schön D & Besson M. Processing pitch and duration in music reading: A RT-ERP study. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 868-878. PDF

Wilson SJ, Pressing JL & Wales RJ. Modelling rhythmic function in a musician post-stroke. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 1494-1505. PDF

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Timbre

Boucher R & Bryden MP. Laterality effects in the processing of melody and timbre. Neuropsychologia 1997, 35(11): 1467-1473. PDF

Brancucci A & San Martini P. Laterality in the perception of temporal cues of musical timbre. Neuropsychologia 1999, 37: 1445-1451. PDF

Brancucci A & San Martini P. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perception of rapid (timbral) and slow (nontimbral) amplitude fluctuations of complex tones. Neuropsychology 2003, 17(3): 451-457. PDF

Caclin A, et al. Separate neural processing of timbre dimensions in auditory sensory memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(12): 1959-1972. PDF

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Creel SC, Newport EL & Aslin RN. Distant melodies: Statistical learning of nonadjacent dependencies in tone sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 2004, 30(5): 1119-1130. PDF

Deike S, et al. Auditory stream segregation relying on timbre involves left auditory cortex. NeuroReport 2004, 15(9): 1511-1514. PDF

Goydke KN, et al. Changes in emotional tone and instrumental timbre are reflected by the mismatch negativity. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 21: 351-359. PDF

Halpern AR, et al. Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre. Neuropsychologia 2004, 42: 1281-1292. PDF

Krumhansl CL & Iverson P. Perceptual interactions between musical pitch and timbre. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1992, 18(3): 739-751. PDF

Mizuochi T, et al. Perceptual categorization of sound spectral envelopes reflected in auditory-evoked N1m. NeuroReport 2005, 16(6): 555-558. PDF

Pantev C, et al. Timbre-specific enhancement of auditory cortical representations in musicians. NeuroReport 2001, 12(1): 169-174. PDF

Pitt MA & Crowder RG. The role of spectral and dynamic cues in imagery for musical timbre. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1992, 18(3): 728-738. PDF

Samson S, Zatorre RJ & Ramsay JO. Multidimensional scaling of synthetic musical timbre: Perception of spectral and temporal characteristics. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1997, 51(4): 307-315. PDF

Samson S, Zatorre RJ & Ramsay JO. Deficits of musical timbre perception after unilateral temporal-lobe lesion revealed with multidimensional scaling. Brain 2002, 125: 511-523. PDF

Tervaniemi M, Winkler I & Näätänen R. Pre-attentive categorization of sounds by timbre as revealed by event-related potentials. NeuroReport 1997, 8: 2571-2574. PDF

Tillmann B & McAdams S. Implicit learning of musical timbre sequences: Statistical regularities confronted with acoustical (dis)similarities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 2004, 30(5): 1131-1142. PDF

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Tempo, Duration, & Structure

Bengtsson SL, Csíkszentmihályi M & Ullén F. Cortical regions involved in the generation of musical structures during improvisation in pianists. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2007, 19(5): 830-842. PDF

Boltz MG. The processing of temporal and nontemporal information in the remembering of event durations and musical structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1998, 24(4): 1087-1104. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. Analysis of temporal structure in sound by the human brain. Nature Neuroscience 1998, 1(5): 422-427. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. A common neural substrate for the analysis of pitch and duration pattern in segmented sound? NeuroReport 1999, 10: 3825-3830. PDF

Honing H. Evidence for tempo-specific timing in music using a web-based experimental setup. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2006, 32(3): 780-786. PDF

Jones MR & Pfordresher PQ. Tracking musical patterns using joint accent structure. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1997, 51(4): 271-290. PDF

Jones SJ, Pato MV & Sprague L. Spectro-temporal analysis of complex tones: Two cortical processes dependent on retention of sounds in the long auditory store. Clinical Neurophysiology 2000, 111: 1569-1576. PDF

Jones SJ, et al. Auditory evoked potentials to spectro-temporal modulation of complex tones in normal subjects and patients with severe brain injury. Brain 2000, 123: 1007-1016. PDF

Jusczyk PW & Krumhansl CL. Pitch and rhythmic patterns affecting infants' sensitivity to musical phrase structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance1993, 19(3): 627-640. PDF

Kuhn G & Dienes Z. Implicit learning of nonlocal musical rules: Implicitly learning more than chunks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 2006, 31(6): 1417-1432. PDF

Nan Y, Knösche TR & Friederici AD. The percepion of musical phrase structure: A cross-cultural ERP study. Brain Research 2006, 1094: 179-191. PDF

Neuhaus C, Knosche TR & Friederici AD. Effects of musical expertise and boundary markers on phrase perception in music. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(3): 472-493. PDF

Palmer C & Krumhansl CL. Independent temporal and pitch structures in determination of musical phrases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1987, 13(1): 116-126. PDF

Pfordresher PQ. Auditory feedback in music performance: The role of melodic structure and musical skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2005, 31(6): 1331-1345. PDF

Repp BH. Variations on a theme by Chopin: Relations between perception and production of timing in music. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1998, 24(3): 791-811. PDF

Rozin P, et al. Documenting and explaining the common AAB pattern in music and humor: Establishing and breaking expectations. Emotion 2006, 6(3): 349-355. PDF

Schön D & Besson M. Processing pitch and duration in music reading: A RT-ERP study. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 868-878. PDF

Sloboda JA. Music structure and emotional response: Some empirical findings. Psychology of Music 1991, 19: 110-120. PDF

Smith NA & Schmuckler MA. The perception of tonal structure through the differentiation and organization of pitches. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2004, 30(2): 268-286. PDF

Snyder JS & Large EW. Tempo dependence of middle- and long-latency auditory responses: Power and phase modulation of the EEG at multiple time-scales. Clinical Neurophysiology 2004, 115: 1885-1895. PDF

Sridharan D, et al. Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: Converging evidence for dissociable vental and dorsal networks. Neuron 2007, 55: 521-532. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. Effects of spectral complexity and sound duration on automatic complex-sound pitch processing in humans: A mismatch negativity study. Neuroscience Letters 2000, 290: 66-70. PDF

Thompson WF, Hall MD & Pressing J. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2001, 27(1): 128-140. PDF

Williamon A & Egner T. Memory structures for encoding and retrieving a piece of music: An ERP investigation. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 22: 36-44. PDF

Zatorre R. How do our brains analyze temporal structure in sound? Nature Neuroscience 1998, 1(5): 343-345. PDF

van Zuijen TL, et al. Auditory organization of sound sequences by a temporal or numerical regularity: A mismatch negativity study comparing musicians and non-musicians. Cognitive Brain Research 2005, 23: 270-276. PDF

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Music & Language

Alcock KJ, et al. Pitch and timing abilities in inherited speech and language impairment. Brain and Language 2000, 75: 34-46. PDF

Bautista RED & Ciampetti MZ. Expressive aprosody and amusia as a manifestation of right hemisphere seizures. Epilepsia 2003, 44(3): 466-467. PDF

Beversdorf DQ & Heilman KM. Progressive ventral posterior cortical degeneration presenting as alexia for music and words. Neurology 1998, 50: 657-659. PDF

Chan AS, Ho YC & Cheung MC. Music training improves verbal memory. Nature 1998, 396: 128. PDF

Eulitz C, et al. Magnetic and electric brain activity evoked by the processing of tone and vowel stimuli. The Journal of Neuroscience 1995, 15(4): 2748-2755. PDF

Foxton JM, et al. Reading skills are related to global, but not local, acoustic pattern perception. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(4): 343-344. PDF

Hattiangadi N, et al. Characteristics of auditory agnosia in a child with severe traumatic brain injury: A case report. Brain and Language 2005, 92: 12-25. PDF

Hébert S, et al. Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive apahsia. Brain 2003, 126: 1838-1850. PDF

Hickok G, et al. Auditory-motor interaction revealed by fMRI: Speech, music, and working memory in area Spt. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003, 15(5): 673-682. PDF

Ho YC, Cheung MC & Chan AS. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology 2003, 17(3): 439-450. PDF

Jaramillo M, et al. Are different kinds of acoustic features processed differently for speech and non-speech sounds? Cognitive Brain Research 2001, 12: 459-466. PDF

Jeffries KJ, Fritz JB & Braun AR. Words in a melody: An H215O PET study of brain activation during singing and speaking. NeuroReport 2003, 14(5): 749-754. PDF

Juslin PN & Laukka P. Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code? Psychological Bulletin 2003, 129: 770-814. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Music, language and meaning: Brain signatures of semantic processing. Nature Neuroscience 2004, 7(3): 302-307. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Interaction between syntax processing in language and in music: An ERP study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2005, 17(10): 1565-1577. PDF

Krishnan, et al. Encoding of pitch in the human brainstem is sensitive to language experience. Cognitive Brain Research 2005, 25: 161-168. PDF

Lin KL, Kobayashi M & Pascual-Leone A. Effects of musical training on speech-induced modulation in corticospinal excitability. NeuroReport 2002, 13(6): 899-902. PDF

Lo YL, et al. Cortical excitability changes associated with musical tasks: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2003, 352: 85-88. PDF

Magne C, Schön D & Besson M. Musician children detect pitch violations in both music and language better than nonmusician children: Behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(2): 199-211. PDF

Masataka N. Music, evolution and language. Developmental Science 2007, 10(1): 35-39. PDF

Meyer J. Bioacoustics of human whistled languages: An alternative approach to the cognitive processes of language. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences 2004, 76(2): 405-412. PDF

Milovanov R, et al. Modification of dichotic listening (DL) performance by musico-linguistic abilities and age. Brain Research 2007, 1156: 168-173. PDF

Patel A, et al. Processing prosodic and musical patterns: A neuropsychological investigation. Brain and Language 1998, 61: 123-144. PDF

Patel AD, et al. Processing syntactic relations in language and music: An event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1998, 10: 717-733. PDF

Patel AD. Language, music, syntax and the brain. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(7): 674-681. PDF

Peterson DA & Thaut MH. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning. Neuroscience Letters 2007, 412: 217-221. PDF

Racette A, Bard C & Peretz I. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: Sing along! Brain 2006, 129: 2571-2584. PDF

Riecker A, et al. Opposite hemispheric lateralization effects during speaking and singing at motor cortex, insula and cerebellum. NeuroReport 2000, 11(9): 1997-2000. PDF

Ross D, Choi J & Purves D. Musical intervals in speech. Proccedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2007, 104(23): 9852-9857. PDF

Rozin P, et al. Documenting and explaining the common AAB pattern in music and humor: Establishing and breaking expectations. Emotion 2006, 6(3): 349-355. PDF

Roux FE, et al. When "Abegg" is read and ("A, B, E, G, G") is not: A cortical stimulation study of musical score reading. Journal of Neurosurgery 2007, 106: 1017-1027. PDF

Saito Y, et al. Cerebral networks for spontaneous and synchronized singing and speaking. NeuroReport 2006, 17(18): 1893-1897. PDF

Samson S & Zatorre RJ. Recognition memory for text and melody of songs after unilateral temporal lobe lesion: Evidence for dual encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1991, 17: 793-804. PDF

Sanders G & Wenmoth D. Verbal and music dichotic listening tasks reveal variations in functional cerebral asymmetry across the menstrual cycle that are phase and task dependent. Neuropsychologia 1998, 36(9): 869-874. PDF

Schwartz DA, Howe CQ & Purves D. The statistical structure of human speech sounds predicts musical universals. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(18): 7160-7168. PDF

Sparing R, et al. Task-dependent modulation of functional connectivity between hand motor cortices and neuronal networks underlying language and music: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience 2007, 25: 319-323. PDF

Tallal P & Gaab N. Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development. Trends in Neuroscience 2006, 29(7): 382-390. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. Functional specializations of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. NeuroImage 1999, 9: 330-336. PDF

Tervaniemi M, et al. From air oscillations to music and speech: Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for fine-tuned neural networks in audition. The Journal of Neuroscience 2006, 26(34): 8647-8652. PDF

Thompson WF, Schellenberg EG & Husain G. Decoding speech prosody: Do music lessons help? Emotion 2004, 4(1): 46-64. PDF

Vatakis A & Spence C. Audiovisual synchrony perception for speech and music assessed using a temporal order judgement task. Neuroscience Letters 2006, 393: 40-44. PDF

Wong PCM, et al. Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nature Neuroscience 2007, 10(4): 420-422. PDF

Zatorre RJ, et al. Lateralization of phonetic and pitch discrimination in speech processing. Science 1992, 256: 846-849. PDF

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Emotion & Meaning

Altenmüller E, et al . Hits to the left, flops to the right: different emotions during listening to music are reflected in cortical lateralisation patterns. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 2242-2256. PDF

Baumgartner T, et al. The emotional power of music: How music enhances the feeling of affective pictures. Brain Research 2006, 1075: 151-164. PDF

Baumgartner T, Willi M & Jäncke L. Modulation of corticospinal activity by strong emotions evoked by pictures and classical music: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study. NeuroReport 2007, 18(3): 261-265. PDF

Blood AJ, et al. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions. Nature Neuroscience 1999, 2: 382-387. PDF

Blood AJ & Zatorre RJ. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001, 98: 11818-11823. PDF

Brown S, Martinez MJ & Parsons LM. Passive music listening spontaneously engages limbic and paralimbic systems. NeuroReport 2004, 15(13): 2033-2037. PDF

Gomez P & Danuser B. Relationships between musical structure and psychophysiological measures of emotion. Emotion 2007, 7(2): 377-387. PDF

Gosselin N, et al. Impaired recognition of scary music following unilateral temporal lobe excision. Brain 2005, 128: 628-640. PDF

Gosselin N, et al. Emotional responses to unpleasant music correlates with damage to the parahippocampal cortex. Brain 2006, 129: 2585-2592. PDF

Gosselin N, et al. Amygdala damage impairs emotion recognition from music. Neuropsychologia 2007, 45: 236-244. PDF

Goydke KN, et al. Changes in emotional tone and instrumental timbre are reflected by the mismatch negativity. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 21: 351-359. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. "When the feeling's gone": A selective loss of musical emotion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2004, 75: 344-345. PDF (scroll to last two pages)

Juslin PN. Cue utilization in communication of emotion in music performance: Relating performance to perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2000, 26(6): 1797-1813. PDF

Juslin PN & Laukka P. Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code? Psychological Bulletin 2003, 129: 770-814. PDF

Juslin PN, et al. Play it again with feeling: Computer feedback in musical communication of emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 2006, 12(2): 79-95. PDF

Khalfa S, et al. Event-related skin conductance responses to musical emotions in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2002, 328: 145-149. PDF

Khalfa S, et al. Brain regions involved in the recognition of happiness and sadness in music. NeuroReport 2005, 16(18): 1981-1984. PDF

Krumhansl CL. An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1997, 51(4): 336-352. PDF

Mórocz LA, et al. fMRI of triggerable aurae in musicogenic epilepsy. Neurology 2003, 60: 705-709. PDF

Peretz I, Gagnon L & Bouchard B. Music and emotion: Perceptual determinants, immediacy, and isolation after brain damage. Cognition 1998, 68: 111-141. PDF

Redish AD. Addiction as a computation process gone awry. Science 2004, 306: 1944-7. PDF

Rozin P, et al. Documenting and explaining the common AAB pattern in music and humor: Establishing and breaking expectations. Emotion 2006, 6(3): 349-355. PDF

Sloboda JA. Music structure and emotional response: Some empirical findings. Psychology of Music 1991, 19: 110-120. PDF

Spreckelmeyer KN, et al. Combined perception of emotion in pictures and musical sounds. Brain Research 2006, 1070: 160-170. PDF

Steinbeis N, Koelsch S & Sloboda JA. The role of harmonic expectancy violations in musical emotions: Evidence from subjective, physiological, and neural responses. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(8): 1380-1393. PDF

Sutoo D & Akiyama K. Music improves dopaminergic neurotransmission: Demonstration based on the effect of music on blood pressure regulation. Brain Research 2004, 1016: 255-262. PDF

Thompson WF, Schellenberg EG & Husain G. Decoding speech prosody: Do music lessons help? Emotion 2004, 4(1): 46-64. PDF

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Evolution & Development

Andrews MW, et al. Identification of speeded and slowed familiar melodies by younger, middle-aged, and older musicians and nonmusicians. Psychology and Aging 1998, 13(3): 462-471. PDF

Baharloo S, et al. Absolute pitch: An approach for identification of genetic and nongenetic components. American Journal of Human Genetics 1998, 62: 224-231. PDF

Baharloo S, et al. Familial aggregation of absolute pitch. American Journal of Human Genetics 2000, 67: 755-758. PDF

Balaban MT, Anderson LM & Wisniewski AB. Lateral asymmetries in infant melody perception. Developmental Psychology 1998, 24(1): 39-48. PDF

Balter M. Seeking the key to music. Science 2004, 306:1120-1122. PDF

Bengtsson SL, et al. Exensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nature Neuroscience 2005, 8(9): 1148-1150. PDF

Carlson S, et al. Effects of music and white noise on working memory performance in monkeys. NeuroReport 1997, 8: 2853-2856. PDF

Fishman, et al. Consonance and dissonance of musical chords: Neural correlates in auditory cortex of monkeys and humans. Journal of Neurophysiology 2001, 86: 2761-2788. PDF

Fujioka T, et al. One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children. Brain 2006, 129: 2593-2608. PDF

Gobes SMH & Bolhuis JJ. Birdsong mmory: A neural dissociation between song recognition and production. Current Biology 2007, 17: 789-793. PDF

Gregersen PK. Instant recognition: The genetics of pitch perception. American Journal of Human Genetics 1998, 62: 221-223. PDF

Gregersen PK, et al. Early childhood music education and predisposition to absolute pitch: Teasing apart genes and environment. American Journal of Medical Genetics 2000, 98: 280-282. PDF

Hannon EE & Trehub SE. Tuning in to musical rhythms: Infants learn more readily than adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2005, 102(35): 12630-12643. PDF

Hauser MD & McDermott J. The evolution of the music faculty: A comparative perspective. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(7): 663-668. PDF

He C, Hotson L & Trainor LJ. Mismatch responses to pitch changes in early infancy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2007, 19(5): 878-892. PDF

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Hirose H, et al. N100m in children possessing absolute pitch. NeuroReport 2003, 14(6): 899-903. PDF

Ho YC, Cheung MC & Chan AS. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology 2003, 17(3): 439-450. PDF

Jusczyk PW & Krumhansl CL. Pitch and rhythmic patterns affecting infants' sensitivity to musical phrase structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance1993, 19(3): 627-640. PDF

Koelsch S, et al. Children processing music: Electric brain responses reveal musical competence and gender differences. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003, 15(5): 683-693. PDF

Masataka N. Music, evolution and language. Developmental Science 2007, 10(1): 35-39. PDF

Matsuyama K. Correlation between musical responsiveness and developmental age among early age children as assessed by the Non-Verbal Measurement of the Musical Responsiveness of Children. Medical Science Monitor 2005, 11(10): CR485-CR492. PDF

Micheyl C, et al. Perceptual organization of tone sequences in the auditory cortex of awake macaques. Neuron 2005, 48: 139-148. PDF

Overy K, et al. Imaging melody and rhythm processing in young children. NeuroReport 2004, 15(11): 1723-1726. PDF

Phillips-Silver J & Trainor LJ. Feeling the beat: Movement influences infant rhythm perception. Science 2005, 308: 1430. PDF

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Schellenberg EG, et al. Expectancy in melody: Tests of children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 2002, 131(4): 511-537. PDF

Schneider B, Trehub SE & Bull D. High-frequency sensitivity in infants. Science 1980, 207: 1003-1004. PDF

Shahin A, Roberts LE & Trainor LJ. Enhancement of auditory cortical development by musical experience in children. NeuroReport 2004, 15(12): 1917-1921. PDF

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Tallal P & Gaab N. Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development. Trends in Neuroscience 2006, 29(7): 382-390. PDF

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Trainor LJ & Trehub SE. Musical context effects in infants and adults: Key distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1993, 19(3): 615-626. PDF

Trainor LJ. Effect of frequency ratio on infants' and adults' discrimination of simultaneous intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1997, 23(5): 1427-1438. PDF

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Trehub SE, Schellenberg EG & Kamenetsky SB. Infants' and adults' perception of scale structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1999, 25(4): 965-975. PDF

Trehub SE. The developmental origins of musicality. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(7): 669-673. PDF

Wright AA, et al. Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 2000, 129: 291-307. PDF

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Zatorre RJ. Absolute pitch: A model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function. Nature Neuroscience 2003, 6(7): 692-695. PDF

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Amusia & Other Deficits

Alcock KJ, et al. Pitch and timing abilities in inherited speech and language impairment. Brain and Language 2000, 75: 34-46. PDF

Alcock KJ, et al. Pitch and timing abilities in adult left-hemisphere-dysphasic and right-hemisphere-damaged subjects. Brain and Language 2000, 75: 47-65. PDF

Ayotte J, et al. Patterns of music agnosia associated with middle cerebral artery infarcts. Brain 2000, 123: 1926-1938. PDF

Ayotte J, Peretz I, Hyde K. Congenital amusia: A group of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder. Brain 2002, 125: 238-251. PDF

Bautista RED & Ciampetti MZ. Expressive aprosody and amusia as a manifestation of right hemisphere seizures. Epilepsia 2003, 44(3): 466-467. PDF

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Bonnel A, et al. Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: A signal detection analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2003, 15(2): 226-235. PDF

Deruelle C, et al. Global and local music perception in children with Williams syndrome. NeuroReport 2005, 16(6): 631-634. PDF

Di Pietro M, et al. Receptive amusia: temporal auditory processing deficit in a professional musician following a left temporo-parietal lesion. Neuropsychologia 2004, 42: 868-877. PDF

Douglas KM & Bilkey DK. Amusia is associated with deficits in spatial processing. Nature Neuroscience 2007, 10(7): 915-921. PDF

Foxton JM, et al. Characterization of deficits in pitch perception underlying "tone deafness." Brain 2004, 127: 801-810. PDF

Gosselin N, et al. Emotional responses to unpleasant music correlates with damage to the parahippocampal cortex. Brain 2006, 129: 2585-2592. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. Spatial and temporal auditory processing deficits following right hemisphere infarction. Brain 1997, 120: 785-794. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. Frontal processing and auditory perception. NeuroReport 2000, 11(5): 919-922. PDF

Griffiths TD. Central auditory processing disorders. Current Opinion in Neurology 2002, 15: 31-33. PDF

Griffiths TD, et al. "When the feeling's gone": A selective loss of musical emotion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2004, 75: 344-345. PDF (scroll to last two pages)

Hattiangadi N, et al. Characteristics of auditory agnosia in a child with severe traumatic brain injury: A case report. Brain and Language 2005, 92: 12-25. PDF

Hébert S, et al . Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive apahsia. Brain 2003, 126: 1838-1850. PDF

Hyde KL, et al. Morphometry of the amusic brain: A two-site study. Brain 2006, 129: 2562-2570. PDF

Janata P. The highs and lows of being tone deaf. Nature Neuroscience 2007, 10(7): 810-812. PDF

Johnsrude IS, Penhune VB & Zatorre RJ. Functional specificity in the right human auditory cortex for perceiving pitch direction. Brain 2000, 123: 155-163. PDF

Jones SJ, et al. Auditory evoked potentials to spectro-temporal modulation of complex tones in normal subjects and patients with severe brain injury. Brain 2000, 123: 1007-1016. PDF

Kawamura M, Midorikawa K & Kezuka M. Cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music. NeuroReport 2000, 11(14): 3299-3303. PDF

Kohlmetz C, et al. Deficit in automatic sound-change detection may underlie some music perception deficits after acute hemispheric stroke.Neuropsychologia 2001, 39: 1121-1124. PDF

Midorikawa A & Kawamura M. A case of musical agraphia. NeuroReport 2000, 11(13): 3053-3057. PDF

Mórocz LA, et al. fMRI of triggerable aurae in musicogenic epilepsy. Neurology 2003, 60: 705-709. PDF

Mottron L, Peretz I, Ménard E. Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: Beyond central coherence? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2000, 41(8): 1057-1065. PDF

Münte TF, et al. Brain potentials in patients with music perception deficits: Evidence for an early locus. Neuroscience Letters 1998, 256: 85-88. PDF

Münte TF. Brains out of tune. Nature 2002, 415: 589-590. PDF

Penhune VB, Zatorre RJ & Feindel WH. The role of auditory cortex in retention of rhythmic patterns as studied in patients with temporal lobe removals including Heschl's gyrus. Neuropsychologia 1999, 37: 315-331. PDF

Peretz I, et al. Functional dissociations following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex. Brain 1994, 117: 1283-1301. PDF

Peretz I, et al. Cortical deafness to dissonance. Brain 2001, 124: 928-940. PDF

Peretz I, et al. Congential amusia: A disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination. Neuron 2002, 33: 185-191. PDF

Peretz I, Brattico E & Tervaniemi M. Abnormal electrical brain responses to pitch in congenital amusia. Annals of Neurology 2005, 58: 478-482. PDF

Piccirilli M, Sciarma T & Luzzi S. Modularity of music: evidence from a case of pure amusia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2000, 69: 541-545. PDF

Racette A, Bard C & Peretz I. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: Sing along! Brain 2006, 129: 2571-2584. PDF

Russell SM & Golfinos JG. Amusia following resection of a Heschl gyrus glioma. Journal of Neurosurgery 2003, 98: 1109-1112. PDF

Samson S & Zatorre RJ. Recognition memory for text and melody of songs after unilateral temporal lobe lesion: Evidence for dual encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1991, 17: 793-804. PDF

Samson S, Zatorre RJ & Ramsay JO. Deficits of musical timbre perception after unilateral temporal-lobe lesion revealed with multidimensional scaling. Brain 2002, 125: 511-523. PDF

Satoh M, et al. Left hemianomia of musical symbols caused by callosal infarction. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2006, 77: 705-706. PDF

Schuppert M, et al. Receptive amusia: Evidence for cross-hemispheric neural networks underlying music processing strategies. Brain 2000, 123: 546-559. PDF

Sparr SA. Receptive amelodia in a trained musician. Neurology 2002, 59: 1659-1660. PDF

Stewart L & Walsh V. Congenital amusia: All songs sound the same. Current Biology 2002, 12: R420-R421. PDF

Stewart L & Walsh V. Neuropsychology: Music of the hemispheres. Current Biology 2001, 11: R125-R127. PDF

Stewart L. Congenital amusia. Current Biology 2006, 16(21): R904-R906. PDF

Stewart L, et al. Music and the brain: Disorders of musical listening. Brain 2006, 129: 2533-2553. PDF

Terao Y, et al. Vocal amusia in a professional tango singer due to a right superior temporal cortex infarction. Neuropsychologia 2006, 44: 479-488. PDF

Warrier CM & Zatorre RJ. Right temporal cortex is critical for utilization of melodic contextual cues in a pitch constancy task. Brain 2004, 127: 1616-1625. PDF

Wilson SJ, Pressing JL & Wales RJ. Modelling rhythmic function in a musician post-stroke. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 1494-1505. PDF

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Plasticity

Aydin K, et al. Quantitative proton MR spectroscopic finding of cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex of musicians. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2005, 26: 128-136. PDF

Bangert M & Altenmüller EO. Mapping perception to action in piano practice: A longitudinal DC-EEG study. BMC Neuroscience 2003, 4:26. PDF

Bengtsson SL, et al. Exensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nature Neuroscience 2005, 8(9): 1148-1150. PDF

Bosnyak DJ, Eaton RA & Roberts LE. Distributed auditory cortical representations are modified when non-musicians are trained at pitch discrimination with 40 Hz amplitude modulated tones. Cerebral Cortex 2004, 14: 1088-1099. PDF

Chan AS, Ho YC & Cheung MC. Music training improves verbal memory. Nature 1998, 396: 128. PDF

Doyon J, Penhune V & Ungerleider LG. Distinct contribution of the cortico-striatal and cortico-cerebellar systems to motor skill learning. Neuropsychologia 2003, 41: 252-262. PDF

Foxton JM, et al. Training improves acoustic pattern perception. Current Biology 2004, 14: 322-325. PDF

Fujioka T, et al. One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children. Brain 2006, 129: 2593-2608. PDF

Gaab N, et al. The influence of sleep on auditory learning: A behavioral study. NeuroReport 2004, 15(4): 731-734. PDF

Hashimoto I, et al. Is there training-dependent reorganization of digit representation in area 3b of string players? Clinical Neurophysiology 2004, 115: 435-447. PDF

Jausovec B, Jausovec K & Gerlic I. The influence of Mozart's music on brain activity in the process of learning. Clinical Neurophysiology 2006, 117: 2703-2714. PDF

Karni A, et al. Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticty during motor skill learning. Nature 1995, 14: 155-158. PDF

Lahav A, Saltzman E & Schlaug G. Action representation of sound: Audiomotor recognition network while listening to newly acquired actions. The Journal of Neuroscience 2007, 27(2): 308-314. PDF

Menning H, Roberts LE & Pantev C. Plastic changes in the auditory cortex induced by intensive frequency discrimination training. NeuroReport 2000, 11(4): 817-822. PDF

Münte TF, Altenmüller E & Jäncke L. The musician's brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2002, 3: 473-478. PDF

Palmer C & Drake C. Monitoring and planning capacities in the acquisition of music performance skills. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1997, 51(4): 369-384. PDF

Penhune VB & Doyon J. Dynamic cortical and subcortical networks in learning and delayed recall of timed motor sequences. The Journal of Neuroscience 2002, 22(4): 1397-1406. PDF

Rauschecker JP. Auditory cortical plasticity: A comparison with other sensory systems. Trends in Neuroscience 1999, 22: 74-80. PDF

Recanzone GH, Schreiner CE & Merzenich MM. Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience 1993, 13: 87-103. PDF

Rosenkranz K, Williamon A & Rothwell JC. Motorcortical excitability and synaptic plasticity is enhanced in professional musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience 2007, 27(19): 5200-5206. PDF

Ross DA, Olson IR & Gore JC. Cortical plasticity in an early blind musician: An fMRI study. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2003, 21: 821-828. PDF

Schmithorst VJ & Holland SK. The effect of musical training on the neural correlates of math processing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2004, 354: 193-196. PDF

Slobounov S, et al. Modulation of cortical acivity as a result of task-specific practice. Neuroscience Letters 2007, 421: 126-131. PDF

Sparing R, et al. Task-dependent modulation of functional connectivity between hand motor cortices and neuronal networks underlying language and music: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience 2007, 25: 319-323. PDF

Walker MP, et al. Sleep-dependent motor memory plasticity in the human brain. Neuroscience 2005, 133: 911-917. PDF

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Musicians' Brains

Aleman A, et al. Music training and mental imagery ability. Neuropsychologia 2000, 38: 1664-1668. PDF

Andrews MW, et al. Identification of speeded and slowed familiar melodies by younger, middle-aged, and older musicians and nonmusicians. Psychology and Aging 1998, 13(3): 462-471. PDF

Aydin K, et al. Quantitative proton MR spectroscopic finding of cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex of musicians. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2005, 26: 128-136. PDF

Baader AP, Kazennikov O & Wiesendanger M. Coordination of bowing and fingering in violin playing. Cognitive Brain Research 2005, 23: 436-443. PDF

Bangert M, et al. Classical conditioned responses to absent tones. BMC Neuroscience 2006, 7:60. PDF

Beisteiner R, et al. A marker for differentiation of capabilities for processing of musical harmonies as detected by magnetoencephalography in musicians. Neuroscience Letters 1999, 277: 37-40. PDF

Bengtsson SL, et al. Exensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nature Neuroscience 2005, 8(9): 1148-1150. PDF

Bengtsson SL, Csíkszentmihályi M & Ullén F. Cortical regions involved in the generation of musical structures during improvisation in pianists. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2007, 19(5): 830-842. PDF

Berti S, et al. Different interference effects in musicians and a control group. Experimental Psychology 2006, 53(2): 111-116. PDF

Beversdorf DQ & Heilman KM. Progressive ventral posterior cortical degeneration presenting as alexia for music and words. Neurology 1998, 50: 657-659. PDF

Bhattacharya J & Petsche H. Musicians and the gamma band: A secret affair? NeuroReport 2001, 12(2): 371-374. PDF

Bhattacharya J, et al. EEG gamma-band phase synchronization between posterior and frontal cortex during mental rotation in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2001, 311: 29-32. PDF

Chartrand JP & Belin P. Superior voice timbre processing in musicians. Neuroscience Letters 2006, 205: 164-167. PDF

Chiang H, Slobounov SM & Ray W. Practice-related modulations of force enslaving and cortical activity as revealed by EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology 2004, 115: 1033-1043. PDF

Crawley EJ, et al. Change detection in multi-voice music: The role of musical structure, musical training, and task demands. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2002, 28(2): 367-378. PDF

Elbert T, et al. Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science 1995, 270: 305-307. PDF

Evers S, et al. The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception: A transcranial Doppler sonography study. Brain 1999, 122: 75-85. PDF

Fujioka T, et al. Musical training enhances automatic encoding of melodic contour and interval structure. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2004, 16(6): 1010-1021. PDF

Fujioka T, et al. Automatic encoding of polyphonic melodies in musicians and nonmusicians. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2005, 17(10): 1578-1592. PDF

Furneauz S & Land MF. The effects of skill on the eye-hand span during musical sight-reading. Proceedngs of the Royal Society of London 1999, 266: 2435-2440. PDF

Gaab N & Schlaug G. The effect of musicianship on pitch memory in performance matched groups. NeuroReport 2003, 14(18): 2291-2295. PDF

Gaser C & Schlaug G. Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(27): 9240-9245. PDF

Hamilton RH, Pascual-Leone A & Schlaug G. Absolute pitch in blind musicians. NeuroReport 2004, 15(9): 803-806. PDF

Hasegawa T, et al. Learned audio-visual cross-modal associations in observed piano playing activate the left planum temporale. An fMRI study. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 20: 510-518. PDF

Haslinger B, et al. Transmodal sensorimotor networks during action observation in professional pianists. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2005, 17(2): 282-293. PDF

Haueisen J & Knösche TR. Involuntary motor activity in pianists evoked by music perception. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2001, 13(6): 786-792. PDF

Hirata Y, Kuriki S & Pantev C. Musicians with absolute pitch show distinct neural activities in the auditory cortex. NeuroReport 1999, 10: 999-1002. PDF

Hirose H, et al. N100m in adults possessing absolute pitch. NeuroReport 2004, 15(9): 1383-1386. PDF

Hutchinson S, et al. Cerebellar volume of musicians. Cerebral Cortex 2003, 13: 943-949. PDF

Itoh K, et al. Asymmetry of parietal lobe activation during piano performance: A high field functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters 2001, 309: 41-44. PDF

Jäncke L, Shah NJ & Peters M. Cortical activations in primary and secondary motor areas for complex bimanual movements in professional pianists. Cognitive Brain Research 2000, 10: 177-183. PDF

Jäncke L. What is special about the brains of musicians? NeuroReport 2002, 13(6): 741-742. PDF

Jongsma MLA, Quiroga RQ & van Rijn CM. Rhythmic training decreases latency-jitter of omission evoked potentials (OEPs) in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2004, 355: 189-192. PDF

Kawamura M, Midorikawa K & Kezuka M. Cerebral localization of the center for reading and writing music. NeuroReport 2000, 11(14): 3299-3303. PDF

Kobor I, et al. Back-to-front: Improved tactile discrimination performance in the space you cannot see. Neuroscience Letters 2006, 400: 163-167. PDF

Koelsch S, Schröger E & Tervaniemi M. Superior pre-attentive auditory processing in musicians. NeuroReport 1999, 10: 1309-1313. PDF

Koeneke S, et al. Long-term training affects cerebellar processing in skilled keyboard players. NeuroReport 2004, 15(8): 1279-1282. PDF

Kopiez R, Galley N & Lee JI. The advantage of a decreasing right-hand superiority: The influence of laterality on a selected musical skill (sight reading achievement). Neuropsychologia 2006, 44: 1079-1087. PDF

Krings T, et al. Cortical activation patterns during complex motor tasks in piano players and control subjects: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters 2000, 278: 189-193. PDF

Kuriki S, Kanda S & Hirata Y. Effects of musical experience on different components of MEG responses elicited by sequential piano-tones and chords. The Journal of Neuroscience 2006, 26(15): 4046-4063. PDF

Lee DJ, Chen Y & Schlaug G. Corpus callosum: Musician and gender effects. NeuroReport 2003, 14(2): 205-209. PDF

Limb CJ, et al. Left hemispheric lateralization of brain activity during passive rhythm perception in musicians. The Anatomical Record Part A 2006, 288A: 382-389. PDF

Magne C, Schön D & Besson M. Musician children detect pitch violations in both music and language better than nonmusician children: Behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(2): 199-211. PDF

Meister IG, et al. Playing piano in the mind: An fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists. Cognitive Brain Research 2004, 19: 219-228. PDF

Milovanov R, et al. Modification of dichotic listening (DL) performance by musico-linguistic abilities and age. Brain Research 2007, 1156: 168-173. PDF

Münte TF, et al. Superior auditory spatial tuning in conductors. Nature 2001, 409: 590. PDF

Nakada T, et al. "Musical brain" revealed by high-field (3 Tesla) functional MRI. NeuroReport 1998, 9: 3853-3856. PDF

Nager W, et al. The fate of sounds in conductors' brains: An ERP study. Cognitive Brain Research 2003, 17: 83-93. PDF

Neuhaus C, Knösche TR & Friederici AD. Effects of musical expertise and boundary markers on phrase perception in music. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2006, 18(3): 472-493. PDF

Neuloh G & Curio G. Does familiarity facilitate the cortical processing of music sounds? NeuroReport 2004, 15(16): 2471-2475. PDF

Ohnishi T, et al. Functional anatomy of musical perception in musicians. Cerebral Cortex 2001, 11: 754-760. PDF

Öztürk AH, et al. Morphometric comparison of the human corpus callosum in professional musicians and non-musicians by using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neuroradiology 2002, 29: 29-34. PDF

Palmer C & Drake C. Monitoring and planning capacities in the acquisition of music performance skills. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 1997, 51(4): 369-384. PDF

Pantev C, et al. Increased auditory cortical representation in musicians. Nature 1998, 392: 811-814. PDF

Pantev C, et al. Timbre-specific enhancement of auditory cortical representations in musicians. NeuroReport 2001, 12(1): 169-174. PDF

Parsons LM, et al. The brain basis of piano performance. Neuropsychologia 2005, 43: 199-215. PDF

Perrot X, et al. Stronger bilateral efferent influences on cochlear biomechanical activity in musicians than in non-musicians. Neuroscience Letters 1999, 262: 167-170. PDF

Pfordresher PQ. Auditory feedback in music performance: Evidence for a dissociation of sequence and timing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2003, 29(5): 949-964. PDF

Pfordresher PQ. Auditory feedback in music performance: The role of melodic structure and musical skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2005, 31(6): 1331-1345. PDF

Popp AJ. Music, musicians, and the brain: An exploration of musical genius. Journal of Neurosurgery 2004, 101: 895-903. PDF

Rosenkranz K, Williamon A & Rothwell JC. Motorcortical excitability and synaptic plasticity is enhanced in professional musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience 2007, 27(19): 5200-5206. PDF

Ross DA, Olson IR & Gore JC. Cortical plasticity in an early blind musician: An fMRI study. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2003, 21: 821-828. PDF

Roux FE, et al. When "Abegg" is read and ("A, B, E, G, G") is not: A cortical stimulation study of musical score reading. Journal of Neurosurgery 2007, 106: 1017-1027. PDF

Russeler J, et al. Event-related potentials to sound omissions differ in musicians and non-musicians. Neuroscience Letters 2001, 308: 33-36. PDF

Satoh M, et al. Activated brain regions in musicians during an ensemble: A PET study. Cognitive Brain Research 2001, 12: 101-108. PDF

Schmithorst VJ & Wilke M. Differences in white matter architecture between musicians and non-musicians: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuroscience Letters 2002, 321: 57-60. PDF

Schmithorst VJ & Holland SK. The effect of musical training on music processing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2003, 348: 65-68. PDF

Schmithorst VJ & Holland SK. The effect of musical training on the neural correlates of math processing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2004, 354: 193-196. PDF

Schlaug G, et al. Increased corpus callosum size in musicians. Neuropsychologia 1995, 33(8): 1047-1055. PDF

Schlaug G, et al. In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 1995, 267: 699-701. PDF

Schön D & Besson M. Processing pitch and duration in music reading: A RT-ERP study. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 868-878. PDF

Schön D, et al. An fMRI study of music sight-reading. NeuroReport 2002, 13(17): 2285-2289. PDF

Schön D & Besson M. Visually induced auditory expectancy in music reading: A behavioral and electrophysiology study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2005, 17(4): 694-705. PDF

Shahin A, et al. Enhancement of neuroplastic P2 and N1c auditory evoked potentials in musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience 2003, 23(12): 5545-5552. PDF

Shahin A, Roberts LE & Trainor LJ. Enhancement of auditory cortical development by musical experience in children. NeuroReport 2004, 15(12): 1917-1921. PDF

Shahin A, et al. Moldulation of P2 auditory-evoked responses by the spectral complexity of musical sounds. NeuroReport 2005, 16(16): 1781-1785. PDF

Schneider P, et al. Morphology of Heschl's gyrus reflects enhanced activation in the auditory cortex of musicians. Nature Neuroscience 2002, 5(7): 688-694. PDF

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