Mind, Brain, & Behavior 91: Music and the Brain

Harvard College, 2007-2008 Academic Year

Spring Term

Selected Readings


Pitch I
Pitch II
Harmony I
Harmony II
Speech & Prosody
Emotion & Meaning
Evolution, Development & Plasticity
Intelligence, Talent & Creativity




Tramo, MJ. Music of the hemispheres. Science 2001, 291: 54-56.

Tramo, MJ. Function organization of the cerebral hemispheres.




Pitch I

Deutsch, D. Paradoxes of musical pitch. Scientific American 1992, 88-95. PDF

Evarts, E.V. Effect of auditory cortex ablation in frequency discrimination in monkey, 1951, 443-448. PDF

Kaas, JH, Hackett, TA, & Tramo, MJ. Auditory processing in primate cerebral cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 1999, 9: 164-170. PDF

Morel, A, Garraghty, PE, & Kaas, JH. Tonotopic organization, architectonic fields, and connections of auditory cortex in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 1993, 335: 437-459. PDF

Phillips, DP, Semple, MN, Calford, MB, & Kitzes, LM. Level-dependent representation of stimulus frequency in cat primary auditory cortex. Experimental Brain Research 1994, 102: 210-226. PDF

Shepard, RN. Circularity in judgments of relative pitch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1964, 36: 2346-2353. PDF

Tramo, MJ, Shah, GD, & Braida, LD. Functional role of auditory cortex in frequency processing and pitch perception. Journal of Neurophysiology 2002, 87: 122-139. PDF

Wightman, FL & Green, DM. The perception of pitch. American Scientist 1974, 62: 208-215. PDF




Pitch II

Cariani PA & Delgutte B. Neural correlates of the pitch of complex tones. I. Pitch ad pitch salience. Journal of Neurophysiology 1996, 76: 1698-1716. PDF

Houtsma AJM & Goldstein JL. The central origin of the pitch of complex tones: Evidence from musical interval recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America1971, 51: 520-528. PDF

Pantev C, Hoke M, Lutkenhoner B, & Lehnertz K. Tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex: Pitch versus frequency representation. Science 1989, 246: 486-488. PDF

Schwarz DWF & Tomlinson RWW. Spectral response patterns of auditory cortex neurons to harmonic complex tones in alert monkey (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Neurophysiology 1990, 64: 282-298. PDF

Zatorre RJ. Pitch perception of complex tones and human temporal-lobe function. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1988, 84: 566-572. PDF

Zatorre RJ, Evans, AC, Meyer, E, & Gjedde A. Lateralization of phonetic and pitch discrimination in speech processing. Science 1992, 256: 846-849. PDF




Harmony I

Fishman, et al. Consonance and dissonance of musical chords: neural correlates in auditory cortex of monkeys and humans. Journal of Neurophysiology 2001. PDF

Plomp R & Steeneken HJM. Interference between two simple tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America1968, 43: 883-884. PDF

Tramo MJ, Cariani PA, Delgutte B & Braida LD. Neurobiological foundations for the theory of harmony in Western tonal music. In The Biological Foundations of Music (R Zatorre & I Peretz, Eds) 2001, 92-116. PDF

Moore BCJ, Peters, RW & Glasberg BR. Thresholds for the detection of inharmonicity in complex tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1985, 77: 1861-1867. PDF

Tramo MJ, Bharucha JJ & Musiek FE. Music perception and cognition followng bilateral lesions of auditory cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1990, 2: 195-212. PDF




Harmony II

Krumhansl CL, Bharucha J & Castellano MA. Key distance effects on perceived harmonic structure in music. Perception & Psychophysics 1982, 32: 96-108.

Patel AD, Gibson E, Ratner J, Besson M & Holcomb PJ. Processing syntactic relations in language and music: An event-related potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1998, 10: 717-733. PDF

Maess B, Koelsch S, Gunter TC & Friederici AD. Musical syntax is processed in Broca's area: an MEG study. Nature Neuroscience 2001, 4: 540-545. PDF

Blood AJ, Zatorre RJ, Bermudez P & Evans AC. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions. Nature Neuroscience 1999, 2: 382-387. PDF

Justus TC & Bharucha JJ. Modularity in musical processing: The automaticity of harmonic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2001, 27: 1000-1011. PDF

Bharucha JJ. Melodic anchoring. Music Perception 1996, 13: 383-400.

Bharucha JJ. Anchoring effects in music: The resolution of dissonance. Cognitive Psychology 1984, 16: 485-518.

Background Papers:

Janata P, et al. The cortical topography of tonal structures underlying western music. Science 2002, 298: 2167-2170. PDF

Tillman B, Bharucha JJ, Bigand E. Implicit learning of tonality: A self-organizing approach. Psychological Review 2000, 107/4: 885-913. PDF




Miller GA. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 1956, 63: 81-97. PDF

Dowling WJ. Scale and contour: Two components of a theory of memory for melodies. Psychological Review 1978, 85: 341-354. PDF

Cuddy LL & Lunney CA. Expectancies generated by melodic intervals: Perceptual judgments of melodic continuity. Perception & Psychophysics 1995, 57: 451-462. 

Schmuckler MA. Expectancy effects in memory for melodies. Canadian Journal of Psychology 1997, 51: 292-305. PDF

Liegeois-Chauvel C, Peretz I, Babai M, Laguitton V, Chauvel P. Contribution of different cortical areas in the temporal lobes to music processing. Brain 1998, 121: 1853-1867. PDF

Peretz I & Coltheart M. “Modularity of music processing.” Nature Neuroscience 2003. 688-691. PDF

Dowling, W, & Fujitani, D. Contour, Interval, and Pitch Recognition in Memory for Melodies. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 1971, 49: 524-531. PDF




Readings to be discussed in class are designated by red asterisks:

Krumhansl CL. Rhythm and pitch in music cognition. Psychological Bulletin 2000, 126: 159-179. PDF

***Peretz I. Processing of local and global musical information by unilateral brain-damaged patients. Brain 1990, 113: 1185-1205.

***Penhune VB, Zatorre RJ & Feindel WH. The role of auditory cortex in retention of rhythmic patterns as studied in patients with temporal lobe removals including Heschl's gyrus. Neuropsychologia 1999, 37: 315-331. PDF

***Sakai K, Hikosaka O, Miyauchi S. Takino R, Tamada T, Iwata NK, Nielsen M. Neural representations of a rhythm depends on its interval ratio. Journal of Neuroscience 1999, 19: 10074-10081. PDF

***Povel D. Internal Representation of Simple Temporal Patterns.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1981, 7: 3-18. PDF

Hari R, Joutsiniemi SL, Hamalainen M & Vilkman V. Neuromagnetic responses of human auditory cortex to interruptions in a steady rhythm. Neuroscience Letters 1989: 164-168.

Peretz I, et al. Functional dissociations following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex. Brain 1994, 117: 1283-1301.

Fraisse P. "Rhythm and Tempo." The Psychology of Music. Academic Press, Inc., 1982.

***Boltz M. Rhythm and "good endings": Effects of temporal structure on tonality judgments. Perception & Pscyhophysics 1989, 46: 9-17.



Speech, Prosody, & Timbre

Readings to be discussed in class are designated by red asterisks:

***Samson S & Zatorre RJ. Recognition memory for text and melody of songs after unilateral temporal lobe lesion: Evidence for dual encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition 1991, 17: 793-804. PDF

***Patel A, Peretz I, Tramo M, Labreque R. “Processing Prosodic and Musical Patterns: A Neuropsychological Investigation.” Brain and Language 1998, 61: 123-144. PDF

***Hébert S, Racette A, Gagnon L, Peretz I. “Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive apahsia.” Brain 2003, 126: 1838-1850. PDF

Other recommended reading (not required):

Mottron L, Peretz I, Ménard E. Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: Beyond central coherence? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2000, 41(8): 1057-1065. PDF

Baum SR & Dwivedi VD. Sensitivity to prosodic structure in left-and right-hemisphere-damaged individuals. Brain & Language 2003, 87: 278-289. PDF

Hebert S, Racette A, Gagnon L, Peretz I. Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia. Brain 2003, 126: 1838-1850. PDF

Lo YL, Fook-Chong S, Lau DPC, Tan EK. Cortical excitability changes associated with musical tasks: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study in humans. Neuroscience Letters 2003, 352: 85-88. PDF



Emotion & Meaning

Sloboda JA. Music structure and emotional response: Some empirical findings. Psychology of Music 1991, 19: 110-120. PDF

Blood AJ & Zatorre RJ. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. PNAS 2001, 98: 11818-11823. PDF

Redish AD. Addiction as a computation process gone awry. Science 2004, 306: 1944-7. PDF

Peretz I, Gagnon L, Bouchard B. Music and emotion: perceptual determinants, immediacy, and isolation after brain damage. Cognition 1998, 68: 111-141. PDF

Other recommended reading (not required):

Altenmuller E, Schurmann K, Lim VK, Parlitz D. Hits to the left, flops to the right: different emotions during listening to music are reflected in cortical lateralisation patterns. Neuropsychologia 2002, 40: 2242-2256. PDF

Juslin PN & Sloboda JA. Psychological perspectives on music and emotion. In PN Juslin & JZ Sloboda (Eds.) Music and emotion (pp. 71-104) 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Meyer LB. Emotion and meaning in music. 1956. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.



Evolution, Development, Plasticity

Wright AA, Rivera JJ, Hulse SH, Shyan M, Neiworth JJ. Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 2000, 129: 291-307. PDF

Zentner MR & Kagan J. Infants' perception of consonance and dissonance in music. Infant Behavior & Development 1998, 21: 483-492. PDF

Karni A, Meyer G, Jezzard P, Adams MM, Turner R, Ungerleider LG. Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticty during motor skill learning. Nature 1995, 14: 155-158. PDF

Other recommended reading (not required):

DallaBella S, Peretz I, Rousseau L, Gosselin N. A developmental study of the affective value of tempo and mode in music. Cognition 2001: 80, B1-B10.

Recanzone GH, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience 1993, 13: 87-103. PDF

Schmidt LA, Trainor LJ, Santesso DL. Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimul during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Brain & Cognition 2003, 52: 27-32.


Intelligence, Talent & Creativity

Gardner, H. Musical intelligence (pp. 99 - 127). In Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences 1983. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Gardner H. Approaches to creativity. In Creating Minds: An anatomy of creativity through the lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham & Gandhi (pp. 19-45) 1993. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

***PLUS: You are responsible for selecting and being prepared to discuss/summarize results from a paper or your choosing from the literature. (PubMed or PsycInfo are good search engines to explore.)

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